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1856 MEMOIR OF THE LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF JOHN CHARLES FREMONT,
by John Bigelow; New York, Derby & Jackson

Pages 144, 145

            Before the junction of Mr. Fremont with Commodores Sloat and Stockton, his operations had been carried on under the flag of Independence -- the Bear Flag, as it was called -- the device of the bear being adopted on account of the courageous qualities of that animal (the white bear), which never gives the road to men -- which attacks any number -- and fights to the last with increasing ferocity, with amazing strength of muscle, and with an incredible tenacity of the vital principle -- never more formidable and dangerous than when mortally wounded.  The Independents took the device of this bear for their flag, and established the independence of California under it: and in joining the United States forces, hauled down this flag and hoisted the flag of the United States.

             
                       

 
January 31, 2007

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